An after-hours event and Reception takes place on January 28 from 7 to 11 p. LongHouse is closed for the season but is open by appointment from Monday through Saturday by calling the LongHouse office at The Carriage Museum is closed through February 1, This exhibition of Ansel Adams ' photographs from the KIA collection suggests how his intuitive and emotional response to the landscape resulted in powerful and enduring photographs. This exhibition is a survey of photography processes and subjects from to This survey of photographic works from private collectors reflects the cultural and social factors prominent to their era.
Seven distinguished artists serve as jurors, each selecting two artists for the exhibition, which also includes the work of the jurors. The exhibition features art made by over 1, students attending schools on Eastern Long Island. The exhibition pulled from the museum's collection explores materials and the hand of the artist, bringing substance and gesture to the fore through a series of thematic mini-exhibitions. The Museum is closed for the winter. It re-opens on March 1, The exhibition continues through March 31, A cartoon illustration can add humor to essays.
Use reference images to create scenes and characters; this can be as simple as looking at an image to inspire your artwork, or creating character sketches and detailed scenes from different angles to create the basis of a picture book world.
Some traditional illustration techniques include watercolor and ink, airbrush art, oil painting, wood engraving, linoleum cuts. John Held, Jr. Traditional illustration seems to have made a resurgence in the age of social media thanks to social networks like Instagram , Facebook and YouTube.
Traditional and digital illustration are both flourishing. Universities and art schools offer specific courses in illustration so this has become a new avenue into the profession. Many illustrators are freelance. Most scientific illustrations and technical illustrations are known as information graphics. Among the information graphics specialists are medical illustrators who illustrate human anatomy requiring many years of artistic and medical training.
A popular medium with illustrators of the s and s was casein , as was egg tempera. The immediacy and durability of these media suited illustration's demands well; the artwork in both types of paint withstood the rigors of travel to clients and printers without damage. Computer illustration, or digital illustration, is the use of digital tools to produce images under the direct manipulation of the artist through a pointing device, such as a tablet or a mouse. Computers changed the industry and today, many cartoonists and illustrators create digital illustrations using computers, graphics tablets, scanners.
The League has been known for its broad appeal to both amateurs and professional artists and for over years has maintained a tradition of offering reasonably priced classes on a flexible schedule to accommodate students from all walks of life. Although artists may study full-time, there have never been any degree programs or grades, this informal attitude pervades the culture of the school. From the 19th century to the present, the League has counted among its attendees and instructors many important artists, contributed to numerous influential schools and movements in the art world; the League maintains a significant permanent collection of student and faculty work, publishes an online journal of writing on art-related topics, entitled LINEA.
The journal's name refers to the school's motto Nulla Dies Sine Linea or "No Day Without a Line," traditionally attributed to the famous Greek painter Apelles by the historian Pliny the Elder , who recorded that Apelles would not let a day pass without at least drawing a line to practice his art.
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Founded in , the League's creation came about in response to both an anticipated gap in the program of the National Academy of Design's program of classes for that year, longer-term desires for more variety and flexibility in education for artists. The breakaway group of students included many women, was housed in rented rooms at 16th Street and Fifth Avenue ; when the Academy resumed a more typical, but liberalized, program, in , there was some sentiment that the League had served its purpose, but its students voted to continue its program, it was incorporated in Influential board members from this formative period included painter Thomas Eakins and sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens.
Membership continued to increase, forcing the League to relocate to larger spaces. In , the League participated in the founding of the American Fine Arts Society , together with the Society of American Artists and the Architectural League , among others; the American Fine Arts Building at West 57th Street, constructed as their joint headquarters, has continued to house the League since In the late s and early s an increasing number of women artists came to study and work at the League many of them taking on key roles.
Among them was a young Miss Wilhelmina Weber Furlong and her husband Thomas Furlong ; the avant-garde couple served the league in executive and administrative roles and as student members throughout the American modernism movement. Alice Van Vechten Brown, who would develop some of the first art programs in American higher education studied with the league until prolonged family illness sent her home; the painter Edith Dimock , a student from to , described her classes at the Art Students League: In a room innocent of ventilation, the job was to draw Venus and her colleagues.
We were not allowed to hitch bodies to the heads——yet; the dead white plaster of Paris was a perfect inducer of eye-strain, was called "The Antique. One was supposed to work from "The Antique" for two years. The advantage of "The Antique" was that all these gods and athletes were such excellent models: there never was the twitch of an iron-bound muscle. Venus never batted her hard-boiled egg eye, the Discus-thrower never wearied, they were cheap models and did not have to be paid union rates.
In his official biography, My Adventures as an Illustrator, Norman Rockwell recounts his time studying at the school as a young man, providing insight into its operation in the early s; the League's popularity persisted into the s and s under the hand of instructors like painter Thomas Hart Benton , who counted among his students there the young Jackson Pollock and other avant-garde artists who would rise to prominence in the s.
Bill played an important role in the continuing history of the League by enabling returning veterans to attend classes; the League continued to be a formative influence on innovative artists, being an early stop in the careers of Abstract expressionists , Pop Artists and scores of others including Lee Bontecou , Helen Frankenthaler , Al Held , Eva Hesse , Roy Lichtenstein , Donald Judd , Knox Martin , Robert Rauschenberg , James Rosenquist , Cy Twombly and many others vitally active in the art world.
The League's unique importance in the larger art world dwindled somewhat during the s because of higher academia's emergence as an important presence in contemporary art education, due to a shift in the art world towards minimalism , conceptual art, a more impersonal and indirect approach to art making. As of , the League remains an important part of New York City art life; the League continues to attract a wide variety of young artists.
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From until , again after the end of World War II from until , the League operated a summer school of painting at Woodstock, New York. In , the League's facilities expanded to include the Vytlacil campus in Sparkill, New York , named after and based upon a gift of the prop. During its most influential period, it was the forum of the political cartoonist Thomas Nast. Following the successful example of The Illustrated London News , Harper started publishing Harper's Magazine in ; the monthly publication featured established authors such as Charles Dickens and William Makepeace Thackeray , within several years, its circulation and interest grew enough to sustain a weekly edition.
By the circulation of the Weekly had reached , Illustrations were an important part of the Weekly's content, it developed a reputation for using some of the most renowned illustrators of the time, notably Winslow Homer , Granville Perkins and Livingston Hopkins. Among the recurring features were the political cartoons of Thomas Nast, recruited in and worked with the Weekly for more than 20 years. Nast was a feared caricaturist , is called the father of American political cartooning, he was the first to use an elephant as the symbol of the Republican Party.
He drew the legendary character of Santa Claus. Harper's Weekly was the most read journal in the United States throughout the period of the Civil War. So as not to upset its wide readership in the South, Harper's took a moderate editorial position on the issue of slavery prior to the outbreak of the war. Publications that supported abolition referred to it as "Harper's Weakly"; the Weekly had supported the Stephen A. A July article on the escaped slave Gordon included a photograph of his back scarred from whippings. The photograph inspired many free blacks in the North to enlist; some of the most important articles and illustrations of the time were Harper's reporting on the war.
Besides renderings by Homer and Nast, the magazine published illustrations by Theodore R. In , George William Curtis , one of the founders of the Republican Party, became the political editor of the magazine, remained in that capacity until his death in , his editorials advocated civil service reform, low tariffs, adherence to the gold standard. After the war, Harper's Weekly more supported the Republican Party in its editorial positions, contributed to the election of Ulysses S.
Grant in and , it supported the Radical Republican position on Reconstruction. In the s, the cartoonist Thomas Nast began an aggressive campaign in the journal against the corrupt New York political leader William "Boss" Tweed. Tweed was convicted of fraud. Nast and Harper's played an important part in securing Rutherford B.
Hayes ' presidential election. On Hayes remarked that Nast was "the most powerful, single-handed aid had". After the election, Nast's role in the magazine diminished considerably. Since the late s, Nast and George W. Curtis had differed on political matters and on the role of cartoons in political discourse. Curtis believed that mockery by caricature should be reserved for Democrats, did not approve of Nast's cartoons assailing Republicans such as Carl Schurz and Charles Sumner , who opposed policies of the Grant administration.
Harper's publisher Fletcher Harper supported Nast in his disputes with Curtis.
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In , Harper died, his nephews, Joseph W. Harper Jr. They were more sympathetic to Curtis' arguments for rejecting cartoons that contradicted his editorial positions. In , however and Nast agreed that they could not support the Republican candidate James G. Blaine , whose association with corruption was anathema to them. Instead they supported Grover Cleveland. Nast's cartoons helped Cleveland become the first Democrat to be elected president since In the words of the artist's grandson, Thomas Nast St Hill, "it was conceded that Nast's support won Cleveland the small margin by which he was elected.
In his last national political campaign, Nast had, in fact,'made a president. Journalist Henry Watterson said that "in quitting Harper's Weekly, Nast lost his forum: in losing him, Harper's Weekly lost its political importance. Readers may have missed Nast's cartoons, but Harper's Weekly remained influential. Harper's editor George Harvey was an early supporter of Woodrow Wilson's candidacy, proposing him for the Presidency at a Lotos Club dinner in After that dinner, Harvey would make sure that he "emblazoned each issue of Harper's We.
It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.
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The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress , its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol ; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than languages. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in during the War of , the library sought to restore its collection in They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6, books.
After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in , again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War , the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States.
It began to build its collections, its development culminated between and with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington.
President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, , he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President. The invading British army burned Washington in August during the War of and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3, volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol.
One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for , it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn , whose family returned it to the United States government in Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January ; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge.
He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than million items.